Literature

Bitcoin was not forged in a vacuum. These works serve to contextualize Bitcoin into the broader story of cryptography and freedom.

Title Formats Author Date
"Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System" HTML
PDF
Link
Satoshi Nakamoto October 31, 2008
"b-money" HTML
txt
Link
Wei Dai November 1998
"Design of a Secure Timestamping Service with Minimal Trust Requirements" PDF
Link
Henri Massias, Xavier Serret-Avila, and Jean-Jacques Quisquater May 1999
"How to Time-Stamp a Digital Document" Stuart Haber and W. Scott Stornetta 1991
"Improving the Efficiency and Reliability of Digital Time-Stamping" Stuart Haber, W. Scott Stornetta, and Dave Bayer March 1992
"Secure Names for Bit-Strings" PDF
Stuart Haber and W. Scott Stornetta April 1997
"Hashcash - A Denial of Service Counter-Measure" PDF
Link
Adam Back August 1, 2002
"Protocols for Public Key Cryptosystems" Ralph C. Merkle April 1978
An Introduction to Probability Theory and Its Applications, Vol. I William Feller 1957
"The Crypto Anarchist Manifesto" HTML
Timothy C. May November 22, 1992
"The Cyphernomicon" txt
Timothy C. May September 10, 1994
"Crypto Anarchy and Virtual Communities" HTML
Timothy C. May December 1994
"Formalizing and Securing Relationships on Public Networks" HTML
Link
Nick Szabo 1997
"A Formal Language for Analyzing Contracts" HTML
Link
Nick Szabo 2002
"Secure Property Titles with Owner Authority" HTML
Link
Nick Szabo 1998
"Trusted Third Parties are Security Holes" HTML
Link
Nick Szabo 2001
"Contracts with Bearer" HTML
Link
Nick Szabo 1999
"The God Protocols" HTML
Link
Nick Szabo 1999
"Multinational Small Business" HTML
Link
Nick Szabo 1993
"Shelling Out: The Origins of Money" HTML
Link
Nick Szabo 2002
"Untraceable Electronic Mail, Return Addresses, and Digital Pseudonyms" PDF
David Chaum 1988
"Blind Signatures for Untraceable Payments" David Chaum 1982
"The Dining Cryptographers Problem: Unconditional Sender and Recipient Untraceability" David Chaum 1988
"New Directions in Cryptography" Whitfield Diffie and Martin E. Hellman November 1976
"A Method for Obtaining Digital Signatures and Public-key Cryptosystems" PDF
Link
Ronald L. Rivest, Adi Shamir, and Leonard M. Adleman February 1978
"Proofs that Yield Nothing But Their Validity or All Languages in NP Have Zero-Knowledge Proof Systems" PDF
Link
Oded Goldreich, Silvio Micali, and Avi Wigderson July 1991
"Secure Communications over Insecure Channels" PDF
Link
Ralph C. Merkle April 1978
"The Ricardian Contract" HTML
Link
Ian Grigg July 6, 2004
"Triple Entry Accounting" HTML
Link
Ian Grigg December 25, 2005
"Truledger in Plain English" HTML
Link
Bill St. Clair 2008
"A Cypherpunk's Manifesto" HTML
txt
Eric Hughes March 9, 1993
"State and Terrorist Conspiracies & Conspiracy as Governance" PDF
Julian Assange December 3, 2006
The Art of Unix Programming PDF
Link
Eric S. Raymond 2003
The Theory of Money and Credit PDF
Link
Ludwig von Mises 1953
Deflation and Liberty PDF
Link
Jörg Guido Hülsmann 2008
Money, Bank Credit, and Economic Cycles (Third Edition) PDF
Link
Jesús Huerta de Soto 2012
Denationalisation of Money: The Argument Refined PDF
Link
Friedrich A. Hayek 1978
"Against Intellectual Property" PDF
Link
N. Stephan Kinsella 2001
Against Intellectual Monopoly PDF
Link
Michele Boldrin and David K. Levine 2008
"The Right to Read: A Dystopian Short Story" HTML
Link
Richard M. Stallman February 1997
"Areopagitica: A Speech for the Liberty of Unlicensed Printing to the Parliament of England" HTML
Link
John Milton 1644
"The libbitcoin Manifesto" HTML
PDF
Link
Amir Taaki September 23, 2013
"Bit Gold" HTML
Link
Nick Szabo December 29, 2005
"Libertaria in Cyberspace" HTML
Timothy C. May September 1, 1992
"Crypto Glossary" HTML
txt
Timothy C. May and Eric Hughes November 22, 1992
"Detecting Double Spending" HTML
Link
Hal Finney October 15, 1993
"The Cathedral and the Bazaar" HTML
Link
Eric S. Raymond 2000
"Micropayments and Mental Transaction Costs" PDF
Link
Nick Szabo May 1999
"Lucre: Anonymous Electronic Tokens v1.8" PDF
Link
Ben Laurie October 30, 2008
"Advances in Distributed Security" HTML
Link
Nick Szabo 2003
"Online Cash Checks" HTML
Link
David Chaum 1989
"Why I Wrote PGP" HTML
Link
Philip R. Zimmermann 1991
"Measuring Value" HTML
Link
Nick Szabo 2002
"From Crossbows To Cryptography: Techno-Thwarting The State" PDF
Chuck Hammill November 1987
"Financial Cryptography in 7 Layers" HTML
Link
Ian Grigg 2000
"The Playdough Protocols" HTML
Link
Nick Szabo 2002
"Capability-based Financial Instruments" PDF
Link
Mark S. Miller, Chip Morningstar, and Bill Frantz 2000
"Contracts in Cyberspace" Link David D. Friedman May 4, 2000
"Digital Cash & Privacy" HTML
Hal Finney August 19, 1993
"From Imperial China to Cyberspace: Contracting Without the State" Link David D. Friedman 2005
"Bitcoin and Me" HTML
Link
Hal Finney March 19, 2013
"The Byzantine Generals Problem" PDF
Link
Leslie Lamport, Robert Shostak, and Marshall Pease July 1982
"Implementing Fault-Tolerant Services Using the State Machine Approach: A Tutorial" PDF
Link
Fred B. Schneider December 1990
"Intrapolynomial Cryptography" HTML
Link
Nick Szabo 1999
"RPOW - Reusable Proofs of Work" HTML
Link
Hal Finney August 15, 2004
"On Digital Cash-Like Payment Systems" PDF
Link
Daniel A. Nagy 2005
"Reflections on Trusting Trust" PDF
Link
Ken Thompson August 1984
"Negative Reputation" HTML
Link
Nick Szabo 1996
"The Sybil Attack" PDF
Link
John R. Douceur 2002
"Improving Time Stamping Schemes: A Distributed Point of View" PDF
Link
Alexis Bonnecaze, Pierre Liardet, Alban Gabillon, and Kaouther Blibech 2002
"PGP Web of Trust Misconceptions" HTML
Link
Hal Finney March 30, 1994
"Scarce Objects" HTML
Link
Nick Szabo 2004
"The Geodesic Market" HTML
PDF
Link
Robert Hettinga April 1998 through December 1999